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Michal Gal

Former Research Fellow

Michal Gal (LL.B., LL.M., S.J.D.) is Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Technology at the Faculty of Law, University of Haifa, Israel, and is the elected President of the International Academic Society for Competition Law Scholars (ASCOLA). She was a Visiting Professor at NYU, Columbia, University of Chicago, Georgetown, Melbourne, National University of Singapore, and Bocconi. Prof. Gal is the author of  several books, including  Competition Policy for Small Market Economies  (Harvard University Press). She also published numerous scholarly articles in leading journals, including on the intersection of competition law and intellectual property, on law and technology, on the effects of the size of the market on regulation, and on algorithms and big data. She has won prizes for her research and for her teaching. Inter alia, her paper, "Merger Policy for Small and Micro Economies", won the Antitrust Writings Award for best paper on merger policy (2013), and her paper on “Access to Big Data” (with Daniel Rubinfeld) won  the award for best paper on unilateral conduct (2016). Her Paper "Patent Challenge Clauses: A New Antitrust Offense?" (with Alan Miller) won the Jerry  S. Cohen Medal, given by the American Antitrust Institute, for best antitrust paper published in 2017. Recently (2019) she won the highest award given by the University of Haifa, for Best Senior Researcher.

Prof. Gal served as a consultant to several international organizations (including OECD, UNCTAD) on issues of competition law and was a non-governmental advisor of the International Competition Network (ICN). She also advised several small economies and regional organizations on the framing of their competition laws. She is a board member of several international antitrust organizations, including the American Antitrust Institute (AAI), The Antitrust Consumer Institute, the Asian Competition Law and Economics Center (ACLEC). She clerked at the Israeli Supreme Court, and her work is often cited in its decisions on competition matters.

Positions at Weizenbaum Institut

Former Research Fellow

Research Group “Frameworks for Data Markets

July 2022


Research Projects (as of July 2022)

  • The Effects of Legal Data Regimes on Data Flows: EU, US, China, Israel
  • The effects of Algorithms on Competition and competition policy (including algorithmic cartels)
  • The interaction between IP, Competition, and Data Protection in the DIgital Sphere


Selection of relevant publications

Dan Rubinfeld and Michal S. Gal, “Access Barriers to Big Data” 59(2) Arizona L. Rev. (2017)

Michal S. Gal and Niva Elkin-Koren, “Algorithmic Consumers” 30(2) Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 309 (2017)

Michal S. Gal, “Algorithms as Coordination-Facilitators: Potential Legal and Market Solutions,” Competition Policy International (CPI) Antitrust Chronicle, May 2017.

Michal S. Gal, “Algorithmic Challenges to Autonomous Choice,” 25(1) Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review 59 (2018)

Michal S. Gal, “Algorithms as Illegal Agreements”, 34 (1) Berkeley Technology Law Journal (2018)

Niva Elkin-Koren and Michal S. Gal, “The Chilling Effects of Governance by Data” (2018) 86 University of Chicago L. Rev.

Michal S. Gal and Daniel Rubinfeld, “Data Standardization: Interoperability and Portability in an Interconnected World” NYU L. Rev. (2019)

Michal S. Gal and Oshrit Aviv, “The Competitive Effects of the GDPR”, Journal of Competition Law and Economics (2020).

Michal S. Gal and Nicolas Petit, “Radical Restorative Remedies for Digital Markets,” forthcoming, 37(1) Berkeley Technology Law Journal (2021)

Noga Blickstein-Shchori and Michal S. Gal, "Market Power Parasites". Forthcoming, 35 Harvard Journal of Law and Technology (2021)

Noga Blickstein Shchcory, "Voice Shoppes: From Information Gaps to Choice Gaps" Brooklyn Law Rev. (2022)

Michal Gal, "Limiting Algorithmic Cartels," 38(1) Berkeley J. of Law and Technology (2023)

Tamar Shtub and Michal Gal, "The Competitive Effects of China’s Legal Data Regime" forthcoming, Journal of Competition Law and Economics (2022)

University of Haifa, Israel